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3.LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATIONS Introduction: Compounds are formed by chemical combination of reactants (atoms or molecules) which may be solid, liquid or gaseous. Chemical combination occurs in definite proportion by weight or by volume. Based on various experiments performed by different scientists, the laws of chemical combinations were formulated. These laws laid the foundation of stoichiometry, a branch of chemistry in which quantitative relationship between masses of reactants and products is established. The study of these laws led to the development of a theory concerning the nature of matter. There are five laws of chemical combinations. The first four deal with combination of substances by weight and the fifth with combination of gases by volume. IMPORTANT TERMS & DEFINITIONS Law of mass action: “The total mass of substances taking part in a chemical reaction remains the same throughout the change.” Law of multiple proportion: “When two elements A and B combine to form two or more compounds, then different weights of B which combine with a fixed weight of A bears a simple numerical ratio to one another”. Law of conservation of mass: When two elements combine separately with a definite mass of a third element, then the ratio of their masses in which they do so is either the same or some whole number multiple of the ratio in which they combine with each other. Limitations of Law multiple proportion: The law is valid till an element is present in one particular isotopic form in all its compounds. When an element exists in the form of different isotopes in its compounds, the law does not hold good. Stoichiometry a branch of chemistry in which quantitative relationship between masses of reactants and products are established. The study of these laws led to the development of a theory concerning the nature of matter. SELF EVALUATION (T.B.PAGE 60) I. Choose the correct answer. 1. ................... is a branch of chemistry in which quantitative relationship between masses of reactants and products are established. (a) Stoichiometry (b) Physical chemistry (c) Organic chemistry (d) Quantitative chemistry 2. Law of conservation of mass was established by ................... (a) Lavoisier (b) Lomonssoff (c) Dalton (d) Berzelius 3. Law of multiple proportion was enunciated by ................... (a) Dalton (b) Lavoisier (c) Berzelius (d) Proust 4. Law of combining volume was given by ................... (a) Gay lussac (b) Lavoisier (c) Berzelius (d) Proust 5. Some basic experiments on the law of reciprocal proportions was done by ................... (a) Wenzel (b) Lavoisier (c) Dalton (d) Gay lussac 6. The ratio of the volumes of reactants and products in the formation of NH3 is ................... (a) 1 : 3 : 2 (b) 1 : 2 : 3 (c) 1 : 1 : 2 (d) None 7. When two or more gases react with one another, their volumes bear simple ratio. This statement given by ................... (a) Law of mass action (b) Laws of multiple proportion (c) Law of reciprocal proportion (d) Law of combining volume 8. Law of definite proportion was stated in the year ................... (a) 1756 (b) 1774 (c) 1799 (d) 1803 9. Experimental verification for the law of multiple proportion was verified by ................... (a) Berzelius (b) Dalton (c) Lavoisier (d) lomonssoff 10. Law of Multiple proportion will not hold good for elements with different ................... in its compounds. (a) Isotopes (b)Isomers (c) isobars (d) Vapour pressure __________________________________________________________________________________ Answers: 1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9. (a) 10. (a) __________________________________________________________________________________ II. Answer the following in One or Two sentences.(T.B.Page. 61.) 1. State law of mass action. “The total mass of substances taking part in a chemical reaction remains the same throughout the change.” 2. State law of multiple proportion. “When two elements A and B combine to form two or more compounds, then different weights of B which combine with a fixed weight of A bears a simple numerical ratio to one another”. 3. Define law of conservation of mass. When two elements combine separately with a definite mass of a third element, then the ratio of their masses in which they do so is either the same or some whole number multiple of the ratio in which they combine with each other. 4. Give the limitations of law multiple proportion. The law is valid till an element is present in one particular isotopic form in all its compounds. When an element exists in the form of different isotopes in its compounds, the law does not hold good. III. Answer in brief. (T.B. Page 61) 1.State and explain Gay lussac law with a simple illustration. Law: When two or more gases react with one another, their volumes bear simple whole number ratio with one another and to the volume of products (if they are also gases) provided all volumes are measured under identical conditions of temperature and pressure. The law can be understood with the help of following example. (i) Gaseous hydrogen and gaseous chlorine react together to form gaseous hydrogen chloride according to the following equation. H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) → 2 HCl (g) One volume One volume Two volume It has been observed experimentally that in this reaction, one volume of hydrogen always reacts with one volume of chlorine to form two volumes of gaseous hydrogen chloride. All reactants and products are in gaseous state and their volumes bear a ratio of 1: 1: 2. This ratio is a simple whole number ratio. (ii) Similarly, under suitable conditions, gaseous nitrogen and gaseous hydrogen combine together to form gaseous ammonia according to the equation N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) → 2 NH3 (g) It has been found that one volume of nitrogen always reacts with three volumes of hydrogen to form two volumes of gaseous ammonia. Thus, the volumes of reactants and products bear the ratio 1: 3: 2 which is a simple whole number ratio. 2.What is the present day position of law of conservation of mass? Present Day Position of the Law of conservation of mass: This law is particularly not applicable to nuclear reactions where tremendous amount of energy is liberated. However for chemical reactions, the law of conservation of mass is adequate, since energy changes are comparatively small (i.e., the change in mass is immeasurably small or negligible). 3.State and explain the law of constant proportion with an illustration. Law: A pure chemical compound always contains the same elements combined together in the same definite (fixed or constant) proportions by weight, irrespective of its source or method of preparation. Therefore, the law is also called as the law of fixed proportions or constant proportions. ILLUSTRATIONS: (a) Carbon dioxide may be obtained by the following methods: (i) by burning carbon (ii) By reaction between a metal carbonate and a dilute acid. (iii) By heating calcium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate. Analysis of carbon dioxide, prepared by any of the above methods, shows that it contains only carbon and oxygen, combined together in the same proportion by weight, i.e., 12: 32 or 3: 8. This illustrates the law of definite proportions. a white precipitate of silver chloride (AgCl) is obtained along with a solution of sodium nitrate (NaNO3). Prepare pure samples of cupric oxide by two different methods. CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O The Weight of copper formed is found out W2gm.State and experimentally verify the law of conservation of mass Law: Whenever a chemical change occurs.Give the experimental verification of law of constant composition. The cupric oxide is reduced to metallic copper.W2) . This experiment clearly shows that the law of conservation of mass is true. Calculation: Method 1: Weight of cupric oxide = W1gm Weight of Copper = W2gm ∴ Weight of oxygen = W1 – W2 gm Ratio of copper : oxygen = W2 : (W1.1. the law of conservation of mass is adequate. Both the limbs are now sealed and tube is weighed. The reaction takes place as mentioned above and a precipitate of silver chloride is obtained. the change in mass is immeasurably small or negligible). The mass of the tube is found to be exactly the same as the mass obtained before inverting the tube. since energy changes are comparatively small (i. 1.e. In the laboratory. However for chemical reactions. 2 Cu(NO3)2 → 2 CuO + 4 NO2↑ + O2 ↑ It is placed inside a hard glass tube kept horizontally as shown in fig 3. (i) by heating copper carbonate (ii) by the decomposition of cupric nitrate. the total mass of AgNO3 and NaCl should be the same as the total mass of AgCl precipitate and NaNO3 solution.” Experimental verification of the law of conservation of mass: This law can be verified by the study of any chemical reaction. Fig.. Sodium chloride solution is taken in one limb of the tube while silver nitrate solution is taken in the other limb as shown in the figure 3. It can be verified by taking a known weight of a pure sample (W1 gm) of cupric oxide in a porcelain boat. Now the tube is inverted so that the solutions can mix up together and react chemically. The experiment is done in a specially designed H shaped tube called Landolt’s tube.IV. Alternatively the law can be stated as “the total mass of substances taking part in a chemical reaction remains the same throughout the change. Answer in detail. If the law is true. Landolt’s tube Present Day Position of the Law of conservation of mass: This law is particularly not applicable to nuclear reactions where tremendous amount of energy is liberated. the total mass of products is the same as the total mass of reactants. 2. it can easily be verified by the study of the following reaction. The tube is again weighed.2. A current of pure dry hydrogen is sent inside the tube and the tube is heated. The cupric oxide prepared by both the methods always contains the same elements copper and oxygen combined together in the same fixed proportion of 4: 1 by weight. Ag NO3 + NaCl → AgCl ↓ + NaNO3 When a solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) is treated with a solution of sodium chloride. Explain the law of multiple proportions with suitable illustrations.the red cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and the black cupric oxide (CuO). Law: When two elements combine separately with a definite mass of a third element. Law: “When two elements A and B combine to form two or more compounds. The weight of metallic copper was found to be W4 gm. Explanation: Carbon combines with oxygen to form two different oxides.e. The proportions by weight of the two elements are Carbon monoxide . Illustrations: Nitrogen combines with oxygen to form different oxides. Present day position of Law of Multiple Proportion: The law is valid till an element is present in one particular isotopic form in all its compounds. Copper reacts with oxygen to form two oxides . Now the masses of oxygen which combine with a definite mass of copper in the two oxides are calculated. the law does not hold good. The difference in the mass of oxide taken and the mass of copper obtained from it gives the mass of oxygen present in it. a simple numerical ratio. The compositions by weight of these oxides are shown in table. in the simple numerical ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5. Name of Oxide Wt. the weights of oxygen that combine with a fixed weight of carbon (12g) are in the ratio 16g : 32g i. Compositions by weight of oxides of nitrogen No. then different weights of B which combine with a fixed weight of A bears a simple numerical ratio to one another”. .. fixed amounts of these oxides (say 20g each) are separately reduced to metallic copper by heating them in a current of hydrogen and the masses of copper obtained from them are estimated. then the ratio of their masses in which they do so is either the same or some whole number multiple of the ratio in which they combine with each other. of nitrogen in grams Wt. These masses are found in a simple whole number ratio. When an element exists in the form of different isotopes in its compounds.e. Verification of the Law Definite Proportion The same experiment is repeated with a known weight W3 gm of cupric oxide prepared by heating copper carbonate CuCO3 Cu O + CO2 ↑ The cupric oxide formed is reduced to metallic copper by passing a current of pure and dry hydrogen inside the tube as before. In order to verify the law of multiple proportion.16g : 32 g : 48g : 64g : 80g i.Give the experimental verification of law of multiple proportions.C: O:: 12 : 16 Carbon dioxide . carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus the law of definite proportions is verified experimentally. The ratio of the weight of copper to the weight of oxygen in both the samples are calculated as follows: Method 2: Weight of cupric oxide = W3gm.C: O:: 12 : 32 There. namely. 1:2. 4. Weight of copper = W4gm ∴ Weight of oxygen = W 3 – W 4 gm Ratio of copper to oxygen = W4 : (W3 – W4) The two ratios [W2 : W1 – W2] and [ W4 : W3 – W4] are found to be the same and is equal to 4: 1. This verifies the law of multiple proportion.State and explain the law of reciprocal proportions. 5.Fig. 3. The law can easily be verified by the study of oxides of copper. of oxygen in grams 1 Nitrous oxide (N2O) 28 16 2 3 Nitric oxide (2NO) Nitrogen trioxide (N2O3) 28 28 32 48 4 Nitrogen tetraoxide (N2O4) 28 64 5 Nitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) 28 80 It can be seen from the table that different weights of oxygen that combines with a fixed weight of nitrogen (28 g) are in the ratio. sulphur and oxygen. they form H2S in which the ratio of masses of H and S is 2:32 i. they are whole number multiple of each other. [Hint: 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO.2 g of CO2.0 = 2. Thus. The formation of these compounds is shown in figure. Let us consider three elements hydrogen.e. the mass of the reactants are equal to the mass of the product.(T. .. Illustration of Law of reciprocal proportions In H2O. Hydrogen combines with oxygen to form H2O whereas sulphur combines with it to form SO2.. In SO2 . (1) When H and S combine together.e. (2) The two ratios (i) and (ii) are related to each other as : or 2 : 1 i. Show that this reaction illustrates the Law of Conservation of Mass. the ratio of masses of H and O is 2: 16..0 Since.8 + 2. 2...8 g of CaO and 2.8 gms Weight of CO2 = 2. Hydrogen and sulphur can also combine together to form H2S.In an experiment 5.2 gms Total weight of reactant = Total weight of products.2 5.......B.... Atomic mass of Mg = 24 and O = 16]. Sulphur and oxygen combine together to form SO3 also... these results are in accordance to the laws of conservation of mass. Page 61 –62) 1. Solution: CaCO3 CaO + CO2 Weight of CaCO3 = 5.0g of CaCO3 on heating gave 2. Solution: 2 Mg + O2 → 2MgO Magnesium + oxygen → Magnesium oxide Weight of Magnesium = 48 gms Weight of oxygen = 32 gms Weight of magnesium oxide = 80 gms ∴ Total weight of reactants = Total weight of products 48 + 32 = 80 80 gms = 80 gm.0 = 5. the ratio of masses of H and S which combine with a fixed mass of oxygen (say 32 parts) will be 4: 32 i. 1 : 8 .. the ratio of masses of H and S which combines with a fixed mass of oxygen is a whole number multiple of the ratio in which H and S combine together. V.. This case can also be worked out in the same way as above and can be shown to follow the law of reciprocal proportions. Therefore.In an experiment 48 gms of magnesium combines with 32 gms of oxygen to form 80 gms of magnesium oxide. Fig. 5.e. So these results are in accordance to the laws of conservation of mass. 1: 16 . Show that these results are in accordance to the law of conservation of mass.Illustrations: 1.. the ratio of masses of S and O is 32: 32. Problems.0 gms Weight of CaO = 2. 1820 = 0. In an experiment 34.9 g metal was obtained and O2 was liberated. 1.3020 – 0. 5.1 g of metal was obtained.518:1) Hence it illustrates the law of definite proportions. Solution: Experiment 1 Weight of the metal oxide Weight of the metal 32. The weight of CuO formed was 1.298 = 3.476 – 1.552: 1 In both experiments the ratio of magnesium: oxygen is same (1. 4.178 : 0.2430 gm Weight of oxygen = 0.277 g Ratio of copper oxygen = 1. Show that these results prove the law of constant proportion.178 Weight of oxygen = 1.2430 gm of magnesium on burning with oxygen yielded 0.1 g = 0. Hence it illustrates the law of definite proportions. Calculate the mass of O2 liberated in each experiment.2430: 0.375 g of CuO were reduced by H2 and 1. Solution: Experiment 1: Weight of Magnesium oxide = 0.098) g = 0.4030 gm of magnesium oxide.098 g of Cu were obtained.5 g oxide of a metal was heated so that O2 was liberated and 32.178 g of Cu were dissolved in nitric acid and the resulting copper nitrate was converted into CuO by ignition.12 Ratio of magnesium: oxygen= 0.16 gm Ratio of Magnesium: oxygen = 0. 2.1820 gm of magnesium on burning with oxygen yielded 0. 1.375 g Weight of Cu = 1.1 g metal combines with 2.96 : 1 Experiment 2: Weight of CuO = 1.1820 Weight of oxygen = 0.552: 1 Experiment 2: Weight of Magnesium oxide = 0.96 : 1 In both experiments the ratio of Copper: oxygen is some (3.4 1 g of the metal combine with -----32.96: 1).5 g .1820: 0.2430 = 0.3.4030 – 0.16 = 1.3020 gm of magnesium oxide.075 g = 119. In another experiment 0.4030 gm Weight of Magnesium = 0. Show that the data explain the law of multiple proportions.5 g of another oxide of the same metal was heated and 103.375 – 1.178 = 0.476 Weight of Cu = 1. Solution: Experiment 1: Weight of CuO = 1.5 g 32. In another experiment.4 g oxygen.3020 Weight of Magnesium = 0.In an experiment 0. Show that the data explain the law of definite proportions.12 = 1.277 = 3.098 : 0.098 g Weight of oxygen = (1.1 Experiment 2 Weight of the oxide taken = = 34.298 Ratio of copper: oxygen = 1. In another experiment 119.476 g. Show that these data illustrate the law of reciprocal proportions. the law of reciprocal proportions holds good.998 g of oxygen.21) = 17.1501 : 0. In another compound which contains carbon and sulphur..318 gram of copper combines with definite weight of oxygen 0..630 g 0. 8.318 g of copper.998 gram The ratio masses of H and S is 1:1 .6 1 g of metal = -------.Weight of the metal formed = 103. Thus law of multiple proportions is obeyed. Weight of sulphur = 1 gram Weight of oxygen = 0.086 g Cupric oxide (B) 0. that combine with the fixed weight of the metal viz 1 g are in the ratio 0..(or) …… (3) 8 6 They are whole no multiple of each other. Solution: In first compound (is carbon and chlorine) The weight of chlorine = 92. Solution: In hydrogen – Sulphur and Hydrogen – Oxygen combinations The weight of Hydrogen = 1.79 gram .59. One gram of hydrogen combines with 7.318 g 0.6 g oxygen. (ii) 0.Copper combines with oxygen to form two oxides.… (1) In Hydrogen – sulphur combinations the ratio masses of H and S is 1:16 .080 = 1:1 The proportion by weight of chlorine is indicated by simple ratio.0 grams Weight of sulphur = 15.88 g of sulphur. 0. 15.398 g of cupric oxide contains 3.x 1 = 0. A compound contains carbon and chlorine. the percentage of sulphur is 84. Show that these data illustrate the law of reciprocal Proportions. (2) and (3) are simple multiples of each other therefore. one gram of sulphur combines with 0..716 g 0. Prove that the above data illustrates the law of multiple proportions.398 g 0.630.9 g Weight of oxygen liberated = 15. One gram of hydrogen combines with 15.. In oxygen – sulphur combinations. 7.. (2) So the ratio (1) and (2) are related to each other as 1 1 ---: ---. (4) (1). which have the following composition: (i) 0..716 g of cuprous oxides contains 0.21.630 g of copper.21.92 g of oxygen.080: 0. The percentage of chlorine in the compound is 92. In a third compound which contains sulphur and chlorine...075 2 : 1 6.21 gram The weight of oxygen = (100 – 92. the percentage of chlorine is 52.88 grams Weight of oxygen = 7.9 Therefore different weights of oxygen.15014 oxygen 103.6 g 103. Solution: Here Copper forms different oxides Cuprous oxide(A) Weight of oxide Weight of copper Weight of oxygen 0.9 g of metal combines with 55.08 g Thus 0.92 grams In Hydrogen – oxygen combinations the ratio masses of H and O is 1:8 . . Problem 2: 1. on the other hand on heating in air produced 0. Hence it illustrates the law of definite proportions.16x1 ∴1.5g mercury when heated in air.72:1). 56. 55.19 gm Wt of Zinc = 1.428 gm = 1.32 gm.384 gm Ratio of Zinc: oxygen = 1.5g mercury = 0. Show that these results are according to the law of definite proportions. = 0. In another experiment 1.72: 1 = 3.08 g oxygen. produced 1.384 = 3. Solution: Experiment 1: Wt. 0. 58& 59) Problem 1.19 ∴Wt of oxygen = 1. Both show that 1. in both the cases.08. 0.51 gm Wt of zinc oxide = 1.51 gm of zinc oxide was obtained.812 gm = 1.16g oxygen.0g mercury will combine with = -------= 0.16g oxide –2. 2. leaving behind 2. 1.16 g oxygen.72: 1 In both the experiments the ratio of Zinc: oxygen is same (3.0 g mercury 2. This supports the law of definite proportions. of Zinc oxide Wt. of Zinc ∴Wt of oxygen Experiment 2: = 1.Calculate the volume of oxygen required for the complete combustion of 20cm3 of methane.428 = 0.5g mercury combines with = 0.32 Ratio of Zinc: oxygen = 1.16g mercury oxide. 1.428 gm of zinc show that these results illustrate the law of definite proportions.1. and (ii) the volume of carbon dioxide formed. [Hint: CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)] Solution: CH4 + 2O2 1 volume 2 volumes 3 20 cm 2 x 20cm3 Volume of O2 required for combustion = 40cm3 CO2 1 volume 20 cm3 + 2H2O 2 volumes 40 cm3 10.62g oxide – 1. [Hint: C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O].19: 0.62 g mercury oxide.12x1 ∴1.= 0. Solution: (i) 1.9.08 g oxygen.812 .0g mercury will combine with = ---------. 2 In first case oxide was produced.812 gm of zinc oxide when heated with carbon gave 1.12 g oxygen. Calculate: (i) the volume of oxygen used up.428: 0.1.0 g mercury combines with = = 0. 0.12g oxygen. 1.08 g oxygen.0g mercury.5 (ii) 2. That means.0g mercury has combined with 0. proportion of mercury to oxygen is 1: 0. Solution: C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 1 volume 5 volumes 100 cm3 500 cm3 Volume of O2 used Volume of CO2 formed 3CO2(g) 3 volume 300 cm3 + 4H2O 4 volumes 400 cm3 = 500cm3 = 300 cm3 TEXT BOOK PROBLEMS (PAGES 52. in second case oxide was decomposed.19g of Zinc was converted into zinc oxide and 1.16g oxygen. 100cm3 of propane was burnt in excess oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.51 . e.143 %.000 -13.e.89 g of oxygen = ----.538 : 3.804g ferric chloride were produced.0g. Thus law of multiple proportions is obeyed.867 1 The weights of oxygen combining with fixed wt. water (H2O) contains 11. 10. B and C. Example 2: Lead forms three oxides A.133 10 ---------. Each of these chlorides was prepared from 2.769 g oxygen. in B.11 = 88.857 g lead combines with = ∴ 10.55) Iron forms two different chlorides. 0.x ----. Thus law of multiple proportions is obeyed. B and C is 7. The proportion of chlorine in these compounds is Ferrous : Ferric 2.000 100.857 89.804 = 1:1.133% respectively. Show that the law of multiple proportions is obeyed.143 g oxygen.655 1 13. In A.538 g chloride 5.89 g 50 . we can find the % of lead.= 0. Problem 1(p 58) : Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) contains 94. of lead (10. of lead say 10 g.x 88.5 = 2:3 The proportion by weight of chlorine is indicated by a simple ratio.2. Show that the results are in agreement with the law of reciprocal proportions.0g) are in the proportions.(P. 92.11% sulphur. Solution: In water.000 g iron --------------------2.345 10 --------.e.538 g and 3. and find out the weights of oxygen combining with 10g lead in three oxides.538 g ferrous and 5.054 g oxygen 89. 2: 3: 4 The proportion by weight of oxygen is given by a simple numerical ratio. 10 g lead will combine with = Finally in C.143 -10.804 g chlorine.2.0 g iron.804 g chloride -2. A. namely ferrous and ferric chloride. Solution: As the % of oxygen is given. Ferrous chloride (A) Ferric chloride ( B) 4.538 = 1: 1. A B Oxide 100. the weight of hydrogen = 11.000 -Oxygen -7.0 g lead will combine with = Similarly. It was found that 4. Therefore we have.5: 2 i.89 g In sulphur dioxide.143 10 --------. combines with 2.89 = 88.133 ------------86.867 As lead is forming different oxides.11 g The weight of oxygen = 100 -11.804 g chlorine.538 g oxygen 86.154: 1.000 g iron .x ----. 10 g lead will combine with = 7. The weight of iron taken in both cases is the same i. let us take a fixed wt. the weight of sulphur = 50g The weight of oxygen = 100 -50 = 50g 50 ∴The weight of sulphur that combines with 88. 92.x ----.= 1.857 1 10.11% hydrogen and sulphur dioxide (SO2) contains 50% oxygen.= 1. The quantity of oxygen in each of the oxides. Solution: Here iron is forming different chlorides. Show that these observations are according to the law of multiple proportions.345% and 13.769: 1.655 C 100.345 ----------------------------------Lead 92.Example: 1. 7. 2.538 g chlorine 3.0g. Thus a definite weight of iron i. the law of reciprocal proportions holds good.70g 7.0g (d) 11.22 and 56. These result illustrate the law of: (a) Conservation of mass (b) Multiple proportion (c) Constant Proportion (d) Reciprocal proportion 9. 2vols. Law of constant composition is same as the law of ? (a) Conservation of mass (b) conservation of energy (c) Multiple proportion (d) Definite proportion 10. H2O contains 11.88% hydrogen.40 percent phosphorus. rivers.26 of AgCl while 1g of another chloride of iron 2.33% and 36. (c) A sample of air increases in volume when heated at constant pressure but remains unchanged. respectively. An element X forms two oxides containing 53. clouds. Choose the correct answer: 1.143g AgNO3 reacts with NaCl solution and gave 143. lakes or show. 1g of chloride of iron gave 2. 2. The following is the best example of law of conservation of mass: (a) 12g of carbon is heated in vacuum. If water samples are taken from sea. (b) The weight of wire of platinum is the same before and after heating. …(i) In hydrogen sulphide.5g AgCl and 85g NaNO3. This indicates the law of? (a) Multiple proportions (b) Definite proportions (c) Reciprocal proportions (d) None .11 : 5. These figures illustrate the law of: (a) Conservation of mass (b) Constant proportion (c) Multiple proportion (d) Reciprocal proportion 5.22. 2g of H2 combine with 16g of O2 to form H2O and 60g of carbon to form CH4. 12g of C are combined with 32g of O2. (d) 12g of carbon combines with 32g of oxygen to give 44g of carbon dioxide.89: 11.1 or 8:1.89g ∴The ratio between weights of sulphur and hydrogen is 94.∴The ratio between the weights of sulphur and hydrogen which combine with a fixed weight of oxygen (88. Phosphorus forms three oxides containing 39. Therefore. Hydrogen sulphide contains 5. Which of the following pairs of substances illustrates the law of multiple proportions? (a) CO and CO2 (b) Nacl and NaBr (c) H2O and D2O (d) Mg2O and Mg (OH)2 11. there is no change in mass.5g (c) 117. the weight of sulphur = 94. the weight of NaCl will be: (a) 5. 1 x 50 cm3 2x50 cm3 1 x50cm3 2 x 50 cm3 50cm3 100cm3 50cm3 100cm3 Volume of oxygen used = 50 cm3 Volume of carbon dioxide formed = 50 cm3 OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS & ANSWERS I.11g The weight of hydrogen = 100 -94. If the law of conservation of mass holds. This example illustrates the law of: (a) Constant Proportion (b) Multiple proportion (d) Reciprocal proportion (d) Conservation of mass 8. they will be found to contain hydrogen and oxygen in the approximate ratio of 1:8. Solution: CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O 1 vol 2vols 1vol. Problem 1(p 59): Methane burns in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water vapour as given by the equation CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O Calculate: i) the volume of oxygen needed to burn completely 50 cm3 of methane and (ii) the volume of carbon dioxide formed.36% of oxygen.11% hydrogen while SO2 contains 50% suphur. These data illustrate the law of: (a) Reciprocal proportion (b) Multiple proportion (c) Constant Proportion (d) Conservation of mass 6. These data illustrate the law of: (a) Constant Proportion (b) Conservation of mass (c) Multiple proportion (d) Reciprocal proportion 4.89 or 16:1 …(ii) 8 16 The two ratios (i) and (ii) are related as ------: -----.65 of AgCl.11 = 5.89 g) is 88. The formation of CO and CO2 illustrates the law of: (a) Conservation of mass (b) Constant proportion (c) Multiple proportion (d) Reciprocal proportion 3. In CO2.85g (b) 58.or 1 :2 1 1 Which are simples multiples of each other. 49. A chemical equation is balanced in accordance with the law of? (a) Constant proportion (b) Multiple proportion (c) Reciprocal proportion (d) Conservation of mass 20.2% Hydrogen by weight which illustrate the law of (a) Multiple proportions (b) Definite proportion (d) Combining volumes (d) Reciprocal proportion 21. In the following reaction: H2 + Cl2 → 2HCl the ratio of volumes of H2. (b) 12g of carbon is heated in vacuum. HBr (b) PH3. These figures illustrate the law of: (a) Constant proportion (b) Multiple proportion (c) Reciprocal proportion (d) Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous volume.24L of CO2 at S.65%. 1-0g N2 unites with 0. 3. This illustrates? (a) Law of multiple proportions (b) Conservation of mass (c) Law of definite proportions (d) Law of reciprocal proportions 18.25g O2.8% oxygen and 11. BaO (d) SnCl2. (a) All chemical reactions (b) Nuclear reactions (c) Endothermic reactions (d) Exothermic reactions 15. H2O. In compound B.2% and 5. Which of the following set illustrated law of reciprocal proportions? (a) PCl3.2g of it to form 4. H2O contains 11. (b) 1.6g of oxygen gave only 2. SnCl4 19. The percentage of hydrogen in water and hydrogen peroxide are respectively 11. (c) The mass of a piece of platinum is the same before and after heating. Na2P (b) MgO. The oxide of nitrogen contain 63. Water and hydrogen peroxide illustrate the law of? (a) Reciprocal proportions (b) Multiple proportions (c) Constant proportions (d) None 17. 25. Cl2 and HCl gas is 1:1:2. 24. HCl. P2O3. 28. Which of the following illustrates the law of multiple proportions? (a) H2O.8g of CO and 1.P.2g of carbon when burnt in excess of oxygen consumes only 3. 23.2g N2 combines with 2. 26.T. 22. The data illustrate the law of? (a) Definite proportion (b) Multiple proportion (c) Reciprocal proportion (d) Conservation of mass 16. H2S (d) PH3.4 g of carbon dioxide. These results obey the law of: (a) Law of constant of mass (b) Law of multiple proportions (c) Law of reciprocal proportions (d) Dalton’s law of partial pressure.33% and 36. Which of the following illustrates the law of conservation of mass? (a) Mixing of 10g of sulphur and 2g of sand does not show a change in mass (b) The mass of platinum wire before and after heating remains constant (c) 2. P2O3. In compound A.36 % of oxygen respectively. These data illustrate the law of: (a) Conservation of mass (b) Constant proportions (c) Multiple proportions (d) Reciprocal proportions .45% nitrogen respectively. This is an example of law of? (a) Constant proportion (b) Multiple proportion (c) Reciprocal proportion (d) Gay-Lussac 14.0g N2 combines with 5.11% hydrogen while SO2 contains 5o% s.2g of propane and 8g of oxygen produces 10. Which of the following is the best example of law of conservation of mass: (a) 12g of carbon combines with 32g of oxygen to form 44g of carbon dioxide.88% hydrogen.57g O2. In compound C. In SO2 and SO3 the ratio of the weights of oxygen which combines with a fixed weight of sulphur is 13.2g of gaseous mixture (d) 2.0g of Mg is heated in vacuum. H2O contains 88. P2O5 (c) PH3. Which of the following best explains the law of conservation of mass? (a) No change in mass is observed when 2. The formation of CO and CO2 illustrate the law of: (a) Conservation of mass (b) Constant proportion (c) Multiple proportion (d) Reciprocal proportion 27. H2S contains 5. Law of multiple proportions is illustrated by the following pair of compounds? (a) H2S and SO2 (b) N2O and NO (c) HCl and HNO3 (d) KOH and KCl 13. (d) A sample of air increases in volume when heated at constant pressure but the mass remains unchanged. An element X forms two oxides containing 53. The law of conservation of mass holds good for all of the following except.12.11g O2.94%. there is no change in mass. 46. These figures illustrate the: (a) Law of conservation of mass (b) Law of constant proportion (c) Law of multiple proportion (d) Law of reciprocal proportion 29. Na2O (c) Na2O. (c) 12g of carbon when heated in limited supply of air produces only 20g of carbon monoxide (d) A sample of air on heating does not show any change in mass but volume increases. P2O5.69% and 30. T. 4.77% and Cl = 97. (a) 1756 (b) 1774 (c) 1799 (d) 1803 40. HCl. 36. (a) 16: 32 or 1:2 (b) 1:3 (c) 1: 4 (d) 4: 1 42.. The percentage of CO and S in CO2. Their formation illustrates… (a) the law of definite proportions (b) the law of multiple proportions . 1. Proust (b) Lavoisier (c) Wenzel (d) Gay Lussac 39. (a) 10 ml (b) 0.57% and Cl = 77. Richter carried out some basic experiments on the law of reciprocal in the year ……………… (a) 1777 (b) 1792 (c) 1803 (d) 1775 51. Law of multiple proportion was stated in the year …………. N2O3. (a) 1803 (b) 1805 (c) 1800 (d) 1808 48. These figures illustrate the: (a) Law of reciprocal proportion (b) Law of multiple proportion (c) Law of conservation of mass (d) Law of conservation proportion. N2O3. (a) 1:2:1 (b) 1:1:2 (c) 1:1:1 (d) 2:1:1 47. (a) 32:16 (b) 16:32 (c) 32:32 (d) None 49. In H2O.P.. 1 cm = ……………. N2O4. In the reaction.. (a) 2:3:4:5:1 (b) 1:3:4:2:5 (c) 1:2:3:4:5 (d) 4:3:2:1:5 44. (a) J.01 ml 46. (ii) burning charcoal in air and (iii) the action of CaCO3 and dil. Law of multiple proportion was experimentally verified and confirmed by Berzelius in the year ……. (c) One mole of CO2 occupies more volumes than one mole of CO at N. These data illustrate the law of: (a) Conservation of mass (b) Constant proportions (c) Multiple proportions (d) Reciprocal proportions 31..L.82% (iii) In phosphorous pentachloride P= 22. (a) 1:3 (b) 1:12 (c) 36. The simple numerical ratio between nitrogen and oxygen in its various oxides namely N2O. The percentage of sliver and chlorine in two samples of silver chloride prepared b heating silver foil in the current of chlorine and by the interaction of silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid were found to be identical. (d) One mole of sodium hydroxide base 20 g 38. CO2 gas was prepared by (i) strongly heating NaHCO3. Nitrogen forms five stable oxides with oxgen of formulae. Which law does not holds good for the element exists in different isotopic forms? (a) Law of multiple proportions (b) Law of conservation of mass (c) Law of definite proportions (d) Law of reciprocal proportions 52. Law of reciprocal proportion was stated in the year ………….6g. N2O5 is …………. 2NO.0 gram of an oxide of A contained 0. Law of combining volumes was stated by Gay Lussac in the year ………. the ratio of volumes of nitrogen hydrogen and ammonia is 1:3:2: These figures illustrate the law of (a) Constant proportion (b) Multiple proportion (c) Reciprocal proportion (d) Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous volume. 35.23% (ii) In phhosphine P =91.18% and H = 8. (a) 2:16 (b) 1:16 (c) 16:2 (d) 16:1 50.5 gram of A.. (i) In hydrogen chloride H = 2. (a) 1812 (b) 1777 (c) 1792 (d) 1803 3 45.30. (b) One mole of NH3 and one mole of BF3 contains same number of atoms. N2O. NO. SO2 and CS2 when considered together illustrates the law of (a) Constant proportion (b) Multiple proportion (c) Reciprocal proportion (d) Conservation of mass. Which of the following statements is not corrected? (a) One mole of carbon and 1/3 mole of carbon dioxide contain same number of atoms. The ratio of nitrogen and oxygen by weight in N2O and NO is ………… (a) 1:2 (b) 2:1 (c) 2:3 (d) 1:4 43. The formation of these oxides explain fully the (a) law of definite proportions (b) law of partial pressure (c) law of multiple proportion 34. This illustrates the law of (a) Conservation of mass (b) Constant proportions (c) Multiple proportions (d) Reciprocal proportions 37.1 ml (c) 1 ml (d) 0. Law of definite proportion or constant composition was stated by ……………. The weights of oxygen that combine with a fixed weight of carbon in CO and CO2 are in the ratio ………..o gram of another oxide of A contained 1. (a) 1803 (b) 1800 (c) 1811 (d) 1799 41. the ratio of masses of H and O is …………. Of A. 32.43% (a) Reciprocal proportion (b) Multiple proportion (c) Constant Proportion (d) Conservation of mass 33. Chlorine combines with hydrogen and carbon to form HCl and CCl4 when hydrogen and carbon combines they do so in a ratio ………. It was found that in each case carbon and oxygen combined in the ratio of 3:8. N2O5.45:12 (d) 4:12 35 35 53. N2 + 3H2 2NH3. Sodium combines with isotopes of 17Cl and 17Cl to form sodium chloride. The ratio of masses of S and O in SO2 molecule is …………. The ratio of the volume of reactants and products in the formation of HCl is …………. 4.3 g (d) 453 g 64. (a) 56. (a) 63. (b) 21. (d) 54. (a) 12 litres (b) 18 litres (c) 6 litres (d) 2 litres 55. (a) 4:5 (b) 2:1 (c) 2:3 (d) 3:4 63.5g of A.45 g 56. (b) 31. The percentage of H in H2O2 and H2O is 5. (b) 47.16g (c) 1. (b) 13. (c) 62. (a) 25. (d) 19. (a) constant proportion (b) multiple proportion (c) reciprocal proportion (d) Gay Lusac’s law of gaseous volume __________________________________________________________________________________ Answers: 1..82% In phosphorous pentachloride P = 22. (c) 30. (a) law of reciprocal proportion (b) law of multiple proportion (c) law of conservation of mass (d) law of constant proportion 59. (a) 55. (a) 58. State law of reciprocal proportions. (a) 11.. According to the law of multiple proportion the ratio of the mass of element Y in elements A and B is ……………….016 g (b) 0.. (d) 5. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g). (b) 32. (b) 14..(c) the law of reciprocal proportions (d) None of these 54.9% H2O.C. (c) 46. (b) 12. (a) 39.2 respectively. (a) conservation of mass (b) constant proportion (c) multiple proportion (d) reciprocal proportion 58. (d) 36. (a) 42.65% Zn and 43. HCl. CO2 was prepared by (i) strongly heating NaHCO3. Proust 3. (c) 27. (c) 4. The composition of compound A is 40% X and 60% Y. (a) Conservation of mass (b) Constant proportion (c) Multiple proportion (d) Reciprocal proportion 60. (c) 60. (a) reciprocal proportion (b) multiple proportion (c) constant proportion (d) conservation of mass 57. 36. (b) 9. (a) 35.. (a) 40. (d) 28.(b) 59. (a) reciprocal proportion (b) multiple proportion (c) constant proportion (d) conservation of mass 61. (c) 34. (a) 45. (a) 50. (c) 49. Cl2. (c) 37. (b) 15. Gay Lussac’s Law of combining volumes – stated by Gay Lussac’s 2. In CO2.6g of A. (c) 41. (a) 0. 1.. The study of these laws led to the development of a theory concerning the nature of matter. (b) 7. (d) 48.6 g (d) 16 g 62. Answer the following in one or two sentences: 1. X and 75% Y. (b) 22. (a) 64.. 12 g of C are combined with 12 g of O2. Law of conservation of mass – stated by Lomonossoff 2. In hydrogen chloride H = 2. C = 12% and O = 48%. Law of definite proportions – stated by J. HCl gas is 1:1:2 these figures illustrate the law of ………………. (d) 29.18% and H = 8. (d) 38. then the mass of Zn required to give 20g of the crystals will be …………. (d) __________________________________________________________________________________ II.46 g (b) 40 g (c) 117 g (d) 36. (a) 18. The volume of ammonia formed from 6 litres of nitrogen is ……………. (c) 44.List the various laws of chemical combinations. These data illustrate the law of ………………. (b) 58. (d) 2. (ii) burning charcoal in air and (iii) action of CaCO3 and dil. (a) 0. (a) 43. (a) 57. (c) 24. If the law of constant proportions is true then the mass of Ca in 4g of a sample of CaCO3 from another source will be …………. (a) 33. In the following reaction: H2 + Cl2 2 HCl the ratio of volumes of H2. (d) 23. (c) 3. contained 1. (b) 53. Law of Reciprocal proportions – stated by Beizelius 5. (b) 8. Zinc sulphate contains 22.453 g (b) 4. . The mass of sodium chloride is ……………….57% Cl = 77. carbon and oxygen combined in the ratio of 3:8. These data illustrate the law of ………………. Ammonia is formed by the reaction. (a) 52. 2 g of H2 combines with 16g of O2 to form H2O and with 6g of C to form CH4. If the law of constant proportion is true.0g of another oxide of A. It was found that in each case. These figures illustrate the law of …………….43% these figures illustrate the law of ……….93 and 11. (b) 17. (b) 16. (a) 61.53 g (c) 45. 3.0g of an oxide of A contained 0.77% Cl = 97. (a) 6.23% In phosphine P = 91. The composition of compound B is 25%.What is stoichiometry? Stoichiometry a branch of chemistry in which quantitative relationship between masses of reactants and products are established. These figures illustrate the ………………. Law of multiple proportions – stated by Dalton 4. (b) 26. 1. (d) 20. (d) 10. (b) 51. A sample of CaCO3 has Ca = 40%.45 g of HCl reacts with 40 g of sodium hydroxide to form sodium chloride and 18 g of water. However for chemical reactions.8 g of Mg will give = --. since energy changes are comparatively small 6.Law: When two elements combine separately with a definite mass of a third element.x 4. 48 gms of magnesium combines with 32 gms of oxygen to form 80 gms of magnesium oxide. Show that his reaction illustrates the Law of Conservation of Mass. 5. If 3. When two or more gases react with one another. the law of conservation of mass is adequate.0 g of oxygen to form magnesium oxide.8 of MgO 3 = 8 g of MgO Weight of magnesium oxide = 8g 2. “the mass of magnesium oxide formed should be equal to the total mass of magnesium and oxygen”. Thus the reaction illustrates the Law of Conservation of Mass. 3. i. Therefore this law is also called the law of fixed (or) constant proportions. 4. 160 gms of reactants 160 gms of products. ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS BASED ON LAWS OF CHEMICAL COMBINATIONS I. (Mg = 24. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS: 1.. then the ratio of their masses in which they do so is either the same or some whole number multiple of the ratio in which they combine with each other. .8 g of magnesium? Show how these data illustrate law of conservation of mass. their volumes bear simple whole number ratio with one another and to the volume of products (if they are also gases) provided all volumes are measured under identical conditions of temperature and pressure. O = 16) Solution 2Mg + O2 2MgO Total mass of reactants (2 Mg + O2) = 48 gms + 32 gms = 80 gms Mass of product (2MgO) = 80 gms Total mass of reactants = Total mass of products. Show that this reaction illustrates the Law of conservation of Mass. 3 g of Mg gives = 5 g of MgO 5 ∴4. (Cu = 64. What is the present day position of the law of conservation of mass? The law of conservation of mass is particularly not applicable to nuclear reactions where tremendous amount of energy is liberated. S = 32).e.8g ? According to the law of conservation of mass. State Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes. 2Cu + S Cu2S. what weight of magnesium oxide could be formed from 4. irrespective of its source or method of preparation.0 g of magnesium combine with 2. State the law of definite proportions? A pure chemical compound always contains the same elements combined together in the same definite proportions by weight. Case 1 Mg + O2 2 MgO Weight of magnesium Weight of oxygen Weight of magnesium from which Magnesium oxide is to be formed Weight of magnesium oxide = = 3g 2g = = 4. Solution 2Cu + S Cu2S (2 x 64) + 32 160 128 + 32 160 128 gms of copper + 32 gms of Sulphur 160 gms of cuprous sulphide. i. (ii) sulphur dioxide obtain by the decomposition of sodium sulphate contains 50% sulphur.259 g --------Weight of chlorine = 0.476 g of cupric oxide was prepared from 1.088 g --------In this experiment.179 g --------Weight of oxygen = 0. Case 1 (i) Weight of sulphur dioxide = 0.179 g of copper through cupric nitrate. yielding 0.375 g Weight of copper = 1.259: 0.278 g .16 or 1:1 Case 2 (ii) Weight of sulphur dioxide = 100 g Weight of sulphur = 50 g --------Weight of oxygen = 50 g ---------Ratio of sulphur to oxygen in sulphur dioxide produced by (ii) Method = 50:50 or 1:1 Since the sulphur dioxide produced by different methods contains sulphur and oxygen in the ratio 1:1. In one experiment 1.207 g of lead were converted to lead chloride.277 = 4:1 Experiment: 2 Weight of the cupric oxide = 1.375 g of cupric oxide. it is found that copper and oxygen are in the ratio 4:1.259 g and 0. In the second experiment Experiment: 2 Weight of the lead chloride = 0. II.347 g and 0. Thus the Law of Conservation of Mass is illustrated.347 g Weight of lead = 0. the data proves the law of definite proportions. Experiment: 1 Weight of lead chloride = 0. Show that the results of the two experiments illustrate the law of definite proportions? Experiment: 1 Weight of curpric oxide = 1.32 g Weight of sulphur = 0.16 g of sulphur produces 0.16: 0. LAW OF CONSTANT OR DEFINITE PROPORTION: 1.e.297 = 4:1 In both cases.297 g --------Ratio in the weights of copper and oxygen = 1. Total mass of reactants = Total mass of products. the law of definite proportion is proved. Show that the data illustrates the law of constant composition.16 g --------Ratio of sulphur to oxygen in sulphur dioxide produced by (i) Method = 0.32 g of sulphur dioxide. 2.277 g --------Ratio in the weights of copper and oxygen = 1.476 g Weight of the copper = 1.278 g of lead chloride respectively. Hence.088 or 3:1. Illustrate the law of definite proportions from the following data: (i) 0.098: 0.. 3. the lead and chlorine are present in the ratio 0. 0. In another experiment 1.098 g of copper is obtained by the reduction of 1.098 g --------Weight of oxygen = 0. In two experiments.179: 0.16 g -------Weight of oxygen = 0. x 100 = 39. 5.071 or 3:1. Thus these results correspond to the law of definite proportions.207 g --------Weight of chlorine = 0. of iron on heating with oxygen gave 10 gms. 6 gms.5 gms. 2.5 gms. Show that these results correspond to the law of definite proportions. lead and chlorine are present in the ratio 3:1. 7 gms.071 g --------The lead and chlorine are present in the ratio 0.7 gms. In the first sample. of a sample of sodium chloride was found to contain 4. of sodium. the ratio of weight of iron: weight of oxygen remains the same as 7:3. 2.8 = 3: 2 In both the cases.6 = ---. of chlorine.7 gms. of sodium and 1.31% 11. 7 gms.6 gms. 2.15 gms. of the sample has 4. the ratio of weight of magnesium and weight of the oxygen mains the same as 3:2. In a typical experiment. Hence it illustrates the law of definite proportions. 28 : 12 7:3 = = = = 10 gms. 7:3 In both the cases. 9 : 6 = 3: 2 Case (ii) Weight of MgO Weight of Mg Weight of O Weight of Mg: Weight of O = = = = 4.Weight of the lead = 0.93 gms. This proves the law of constant composition. of iron (III) oxide. 12 gms.6 gms. 4. In an experiment. 28 gms. Weight of sodium ∴Percentage of sodium = ---------------------. it is found that in lead chloride. Both the samples contain the same elements sodium and chlorine. 9 gms. Show that these information’s illustrate the law of definite proportions. of magnesium oxide was obtained from 2. of iron (III) oxide.7 gms. of magnesium.78 gms. of an another sample of sodium chloride was found to contain 1. 1. Solution: Case (i) Weight of iron (III) oxide Weight of iron ∴Weight of oxygen Weight of iron: Weight of oxygen Case (ii) Weight of iron (III) oxide Weight of iron ∴Weight of oxygen Weight of iron: Weight of oxygen = = = = = 40 gms.8 gms.7: 1. If they were to illustrate the law of constant proportion. Since in both the experiments.7 . 11. of magnesium gave 15 gms. 3 gms. 11. 9 gms. 4. 28 gms. of iron on heating with oxygen gave 40 gms. of chlorine in it.x 100 Weight of sample 4. of magnesium oxide.7gms. Show that these figures illustrate the law of definite proportion. of sodium and 7.207: 0. Solution: Case (i) Weight of MgO Weight of Mg Weight of O Weight of Mg: Weight of O = = = = 15 gms.1 gms. the percentage of sodium and chlorine in the above two samples should remain the same. 6. x 100 Weight of sample 1.1824: 0. 5:2. In two experiments.e.1248 4:1 Expt II 1.6248 0. 9.278 g of lead chlorine are formed.3024 gms 0. In another experiment 15 gms of calcium combines with 6 gms of oxygen to form the oxide of calcium.15 gms.25 1.4032 gms 0. the ratio of the weight of calcium to he weight of oxygen is a constant.1600 gms 0. of Calcium 10 gms 15 gms Wt.1824 gm of magnesium gave 0. 0. i.25 4:1 These results illustrate the law of definite proportions i. Solution. a compound by whatever method it is prepared always contains the same elements in the same fixed proportions by weight.3024 gm of magnesium oxide. In an experiment 10 gms of calcium combines with 4 gms of oxygen to form the oxide of calcium. In a second experiment. Show that these results are in accordance with the Law of Definite Proportions. of Oxygen 4 gms 6 gms Wt.088 = 3:1 In the second experiment. of Calcium: Wt. In one experiment. of Oxygen Expt I 0. 8.347 g and 0. of Copper: Wt. 10.e. 2. Wt. 0. 0. In the first experiment.5 g of copper was converted into cupric oxide and its weight is found to be 0. Solution Expt I Expt II Wt.4032 gm of magnesium oxide while 0.2432 gm of magnesium when burnt in air yielded 0.25 1.x 100 = 39. 1. of Oxygen Wt.259: 0.In the second sample. This is in accordance with the Law of Definite Proportions.25 g of cupric oxide is obtained from 1.2432: 0. of Magnesium: Wt.1824 gms 0.6248 g. Weight of sodium ∴Percentage of sodium = ---------------------.93 Since the two samples contain the same elements combines together in the same proportion by weight. 7. Thus these results illustrate the Law of Definite Proportions. of Magnesium oxide Wt.00 0. 0. Weight of lead chloride = 0.088 g The ratio of lead and chlorine = 0.278 g .2432 gms 0. of Oxygen 10: 4 :5:2 15:6 : 5:2 In both cases. Show that these results illustrate the law of definite proportions..1248 0.00 g of copper by the same method.347 – 0. the law of definite proportion is proved.5000 0. Solution Wt. Weight of lead chloride = 0.259 g and 0.347 g Weight of lead = 0.259 g ∴Weight of chlorine = 0. of the sample has 1. of Copper Wt. of Magnesium Wt. of Cupric oxide Wt. Show that this data illustrates the Law of Definite Proportions. of sodium. of oxygen Wt.207 g of lead were converted to lead chloride.259 = 0.1200 1:52 : 1 Thus the ratio of the weight of magnesium to the weight of oxygen is found to be the same in both cases.93 gms.1200 gms 0.00: 0.31% 2.1600 1: 52 :1 Expt II 0..5000: 0.15 = ---. Show that this data illustrate the law of constant proportions. of Oxygen Expt I 0. 297 g --------Ratio in the weights of copper and oxygen = 1.297 = 4:1 In both cases.19: 0. 11. Illustrate the law of definite proportions from the following data: . This illustrates the law of definite proportions.476 g Weight of the copper = 1.179 x 100 Therefore Mass % of copper = -------------.476 g of copper oxide. the law of definite proportion is proved.= 79.476 Since. of zinc: Wt of oxygen Expt I 1.72: 1 Expt II 1. Show how these results illustrate the law of definite proportions.= 79. Hence. it is found that in lead chlorine.Weight of lead ∴Weight of chlorine = 0.098 g 1.428: 0.812 gm 1. This proves the law of constant composition. Show that the results of the two experiments illustrate the law of definite proportions? Experiment: 1 Weight of cupric oxide = 1. of zinc Wt.207 g = 0. the percentage of copper in the two samples of copper oxide is the same.098 g of copper is obtained by the reduction of 1.179 g of copper through cupric nitrate.098 g of copper. In another experiment.72: 1 Thus the ratio of weight of zinc to the weight of oxygen is found to be the same in both the cases.098: 0.428 gm 0.098 x 100 Therefore Mass % of copper = -------------. Show that these results illustrate the law of constant (or definite) proportions.375 g of cupric oxide.32 = 3.375 g Weight of copper = 1.476 g of cupric oxide was prepared from 1. 1. hence the law of definite proportion is verified. In another experiment 1. Experiment 1:Mass of copper oxide taken Mass of copper obtained = = 1.207 = 0.375 g 1. Wt.384 = 3.179 g 1.476 g Mass of copper used = 1.51 gm 1.51 gm of zinc oxide was obtained.277 = 4:1 Experiment: 2 Weight of the cupric oxide = 1. it is found that copper and oxygen are in the ratio 4:1.32 gm 1.375 Experiment 2:Mass of copper oxide produced = 1. In one experiment 1. the lead and chlorine are present in the ratio 3:1.384 gm 1.098 g --------Weight of oxygen = 0. 1.86 1.179 g --------Weight of oxygen = 0. of zinc oxide Wt.812 gm of zinc oxide when heated with carbon gave 1. 1. of oxygen Wt. Solution.19 gm 0.428 gm of zinc. 14. In another experiment 1.375 g of cupric oxide on reduction in hydrogen gas gives 1.179 g of metallic copper produced 1.179: 0. 13. 12.277 g --------Ratio in the weights of copper and oxygen = 1.207: 0.071 = 3:1 Since in both experiments.19 g of zinc was converted into zinc oxide and 1.278 – 0.071 g The ratio of lead and chlorine = 0.89 1. 278 g Weight of the lead = 0.088 g --------In this experiment. the ratio of the metal to oxygen in the first oxide is 1: 0.259: 0. III.16 g of sulphur produces 0. the lead and chlorine are present in the ratio 0. Show how these data illustrate law of multiple proportions Case 1 Weight of the first oxide = 100 g Weight of oxygen = 20 g ---------∴Weight of the metal = 80 g ---------80 g of metal combines with 20 g of oxygen 20 1 g of metal combines with ---.347 g and 0. Case 2 . 15.25.32 g of sulphur dioxide.071 or 3:1. Show that the data illustrates the law of constant composition.16 or 1:1 Case 2 (ii) Weight of sulphur dioxide = 100 g Weight of sulphur = 50 g --------Weight of oxygen = 50 g ---------Ratio of sulphur to oxygen in sulphur dioxide produced by (ii) Method = 50:50 or 1:1 Since the sulphur dioxide produced by different methods contains sulphur and oxygen in the ratio 1:1.25g of oxygen ……….347 g Weight of lead = 0. Experiment: 1 Weight of lead chloride = 0.16 g -------Weight of oxygen = 0. Two oxides of metal contain 20% and 11..259 g and 0. Since in both the experiments. Case 1 (i) Weight of sulphur dioxide = 0.16 g --------Ratio of sulphur to oxygen in sulphur dioxide produced by (i) Method = 0. yielding 0.088 or 3:1. (ii) sulphur dioxide obtain by the decomposition of sodium sulphate contains 50% sulphur. In two experiments.(i) 0.207: 0.x 1 of oxygen 80 = 0. it is found that in lead chloride.278 g of lead chlorided respectively.1% oxygen respectively. In the second experiment Experiment: 2 Weight of the lead chloride = 0.16: 0.207 g --------Weight of chlorine = 0. This proves the law of constant composition. lead and chlorine are present in the ratio 3:1. the data proves the law of definite proportions. 0.071 g --------The lead and chlorine are present in the ratio 0.207 g of lead were converted to lead chloride.259 g --------Weight of chlorine = 0.32 g Weight of sulphur = 0. LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTION: 1. (1) Thus. 2% of the metal. 2.8 g --------- Case 3 47.47%.0 g) are in the ratio 0. (1) 100.12 or 2:1.8 In all these cases.9 = 0.1 g of oxygen 11.42 1 g of oxygen will combine with -------31.00 g Weight of the metal = 76..53 g of oxygen combines ith 68..53 = 2. 3.1 ∴ 1 g of metal combines with = ------. For first compound Mass % of C = 42.1 g ----------Weight of the metal = 88..12. Solution. they are in a simple integral ratio.2 1 g of oxygen will combine with ------= 1. According to the law of multiple proportions..e.53 g ----------23.8 g oxygen combines with 52..09 g of metal ……….3%.9 g of C reacts with 57.47 g metal 76. different weights of the metal combine with the fixed weight of oxygen (i. 1g).42% and 52.2 g --------47. This is a simple ratio and hence the law of multiple proportions is proved.58 g ----------- 31.42 g of the metal 68.Weight of the second oxide Weight of oxygen = = 100. (3) 47.47 g ----------Weight of oxygen = 23.0 g 11. The carbon content in one of these is 42.12 g of oxygen ………… (2) Thus.1 Thus.g of oxygen 88.9 g of metal combines with = 11. Show that this data is in agreement with the law of multiple proportions. 42. 1.2 g of metal ……….9 g -----------88. 3:2:1. Show that these data are in accordance with law of multiple proportions.25: 0.e.0 g 52. Case 1 Weight of metallic oxide = 100. Hence.47 1 g of oxygen will combine with -------23. the ratio of the metal to oxygen in the second oxide is 1: 0.53 Case 2 Weight of the metallic oxide Weight of the metal Weight of oxygen = = = = 3.00 g 68.42 g ---------31. 68. i. A metal forms three oxides containing respectively 76.e. Carbon and oxygen are known to form two compounds. these data are in accordance with the law of multiple proportions.9% while in the other it is 27.2 g of metal 52.1 g of oxygen .1 g of metal ……… (2) Weight of the metallic oxide Weight of the metal = = Weight of oxygen = 100. From (1) & (2) the different weights of oxygen that combines with fixed weigh of the metal (i.9 ∴ Mass % of O = 57.53 g of oxygen combines with 76. In one.04 gm. Solution Wt. Solution Expt I Expt II .3011 g of oxygen. hence the law of multiple proportions is supported by the data. Now.7 g of oxygen 1 g of C reacts with 72.1889 g of oxygen 0.75 g of Metal combines with 0.15 gms 0.85 gms 96. 2.3011 g of oxygen 0.252 g and 0.08 gm Expt II 3. fixing the weight of Metal.1889 g of oxygen In the other. of oxygen Wt. weights of oxygen are calculated. 5.66 or 1: 2 Since.52 gm of copper on reduction. Show that these results are in accordance with the Law of Multiple Proportions. Mass % of C = 27. 1: 2 is a simple ratio.1 / 42.85 gm of another oxide gave 2.7989 The two weights of oxygen combining with a fixed weight of copper are 0.9389 g and in a second experiment 1 g of metallic oxide on reduction gave 0. Thus the Law of Multiple Proportions is illustrated.66 g of oxygen The ratio of oxygen masses which combine with 1 g of C is 1. The Law is stated as: When A and B combine to form two or more than two compounds.04 = 2:1 which is a simple integral ratio.08 gm and 0. of metal Wt.3011 ∴1 g of Metal combines with -------= 0.75 g of metal was converted into its oxide which weighed 0. 6.3 g of C reacts with 72. 1.9389 – 0.1 g of C reacts with 57.7 27. Show how these results illustrate a Law of Chemical Combinations.376 g 0. of Oxygen in combination with 1 gm of metal Expt I 7.376 The results illustrate the Law of Multiple Proportion.15 gms 3.53 gm of copper on reduction.7989) g = 0.7 / 27.252 ------= 2:3 0.0. In one experiment 0. the different weight of one combining with a fixed weight of B bear a simple ratio.3 Mass % of O = 72. Show that these facts agree with the Law of Multiple Proportions. of Oxygen = 0.85 / 96.59 gms 0.85% of oxygen.75 g of Metal combines with (0. namely 1 gm.41% and 3.9 g oxygen = 1.3 g of oxygen = 2. Two oxides of a metal contained respectively 7.33 g of oxygen For second compound ∴ Thus.7989 g of Metal combines with (1.04 gm Thus the different weights of oxygen that combine with the same weight of the metal. Let us first find out the weights in the two oxides.41 gms 92.376 g The two weights are in the ratio 0. ∴0. 0.08: 0. 4.90 gm of one oxide of copper gave 1. are 0. In one.59 gms 7.7989 g of Metal combines with 0.7989 g of metal.75) g = 0.33 : 2. The ratio of wts.41 / 92. 0.1889 x 100 ∴1 g of Metal combines with = ---------------75 = 0.252 g In the other ∴0. 32 x 1 ∴1 gm. of hydrogen are found to form 36 gms. Weight of carbon = 3 gms.38 / 1.53 gm 0. of water. -----------------------------------------------------4 gms. a simple integral ratio. Show that these illustrate law of multiple proportions: Solution: 1st oxide Weight of oxide Weight of carbon Weight of oxygen = = = 7 gms. The ratio of oxygen weights = 8 : 16 = 1 : 2. 3 gms of carbon form two types of oxides with weights as 7 and 11 gms respectively.25 gm 2.85 gm 2. of Oxygen = 0. of hydrogen peroxide. ∴The ratio of the weight of oxygen = 4:8 = 1:2 The ratio is a simple integral ratio. of hydrogen combine with = 32 gms.13 = 2:1 (appr).Wt. of hydrogen are found to form 34 gms. 9.8 gm of nitrogen gave 6 gm of its oxide. In an experiment 2.0 gm Expt II 6. of hydrogen combines with = ------. Show that these illustrate the law of multiple proportions. Thus the data illustrates the law of multiple proportions. of Copper oxide Wt.52 = 0.9 gm of another oxide.25: 0. In a typical experiment. 2nd oxide Weight of oxide = 11 gms. 4 gms. of oxygen. and 8 gms. The weight of oxygen that combines with a fixed weight of carbon. In another experiment 2. Wt.38 gm 0.53 = 0.= 16 gms.32 gm 0. respectively. --------------------------------------------------------------Weight of oxygen = 32 gms.52 gm 0. of nitrogen oxide Expt I 6.90 gm 1. of hydrogen combines with = ------= 8 gms. of oxygen Wt. 2 ∴The different weights of oxygen that combine with the same weight of hydrogen. of Oxygen combining with 1 gm of Copper 1. of hydrogen are 8 and 16 gms. Weight of hydrogen = 4 gms. namely 1 gm. of hydrogen combine with = 32 gms. 32 x 1 ∴1 gm. --------------------------------------------------------------2 gms. of oxygen.9 gm .13 gms The ratio of the wts. Weight of hydrogen = 2 gms. Weight of oxygen = 8 gms. Solution: Case 1: Weight of water = 36 gms. 4 Case 2: Weight of hydrogen peroxide = 34 gms. In an another experiment 2 gms. 3 gms. 8. of Copper Wt. Thus the given data illustrates the law of multiple proportions. -----------------------------------------------------Weight of oxygen = 32 gms.1 gm of nitrogen gave 6. which is a simple integral ratio Thus the given results are in accordance with the Law of Multiple Proportions.32 / 2. 4 gms. namely 3 gms of carbon are 4 gms. 7. Show how these results illustrate the law of multiple proportions. of oxygen. This is a simple ratio and hence the law of multiple proportions is proved. the ratio of the metal to oxygen in the second oxide is 1: 0.1 g ----------Weight of the metal = 88.398 g of cupric oxide contains 3.12 g of oxygen ………… (2) Thus.12.g of oxygen 88.1 g of oxygen 11.285 gms Thus the different weight of oxygen that combines with the same weight of nitrogen (1 g). (ii) 0.2 / 2.630 g : 0.1 ∴ 1 g of metal combines with = ------.which is a simple integral ratio.e. of oxygen Wt. 10.e. Thus the law of multiple proportions is illustrated.716 – 0.. 11.08 g.8 gm 4.8 = 1. The weight of oxygen in both cases is the same i.. Copper combines with oxygen to form two oxides.630 g ∴Weight of oxygen = 0.0 g Weight of oxygen = 11.8 / 2. Weight of cuprous oxide = 0. the ratio of weights of oxygen = 1:2.318 g of copper.e.318 g of copper.x 1 of oxyge 80 = 0.142 gm 2. Prove that the above data illustrates the law of multiple proportions. 1..318 g ∴Weight of oxygen = 0.1 gm 4.1% oxygen respectively.318 = 0. which have the following composition: (i) 0.08 g Here copper is forming two oxides. i. the ratio of the metal to oxygen in the first oxide is 1: 0.9 g -----------88.12 or 2:1.8 gm 3.25g of oxygen ……….1 = 2. a definite weight of oxygen combines with 0. The proportion of weight of copper in these compounds Cuprous oxide : cupric oxide 0. Two oxides of metal contain 20% and 11. of oxygen combining with 1 gm of nitrogen 2.398 g Weight of copper = 0.285 g. Show how these data illustrate law of multiple proportions Case 1 Weight of the first oxide = 100 g Weight of oxygen = 20 g ---------∴Weight of the metal = 80 g ---------80 g of metal combines with 20 g of oxygen 20 1 g of metal combines with ---.0 g) are in the ratio 0.318 g . are 1.25: 0.9 = 0.630 = 0.716 g Weight of copper = 0. From (1) & (2) the different weights of oxygen that combines with fixed weigh of the metal (i. (1) Thus.142 g and 2. 0.9 g of metal combines with = 11.086 g (ii) In the second experiment. Case 2 Weight of the second oxide = 100.630 g and 0. Thus..398 – 0.25.Wt.716 g of cuprous oxides contains 0. Weight of cupric oxide = 0.630 g of copper. Solution: (i) In the first experiment.2 gm 3. of nitrogen Wt. Illustrate the law of reciprocal proportions from these data? Case 1 Weight of water = 100g Weight of oxygen = 88. Let the weight of hydrogen be fixed as one gram. According to the law of multiple proportions.42 g of the metal 68. different weights of the metal combine with the fixed weight of oxygen (i. the law of multiple proportions is obeyed.09 g of metal ……….2 1 g of oxygen will combine with ------47.8 g --------- Case 3 47.1 g --------11.58 g ----------- 31.9 Hence. 12. (3) In all these cases..e. 68.53 Case 2 Weight of the metallic oxide Weight of the metal Weight of oxygen = = = = 3. Thus. Case 1 Weight of metallic oxide = 100.9% and 50% oxygen respectively.0 g of oxygen. Water and sulphur dioxide contains 88. they are in a simple integral ratio.0 g 52.. IV. (1) 100.2% of the metal. Show that these data are in accordance with law of multiple proportions.2 g of metal ………. 88.47%.1 g of metal ……… (2) Weight of the metallic oxide Weight of the metal = = Weight of oxygen = 100.2 g of metal 52.53 g of oxygen combines ith 68. Hence.2 g --------47.00 g Weight of the metal = 76. 3:2:1.00 g 68. LAW OF RECIPROCAL PROPORTIONS: 1.8 g oxygen combines with 52.1g .e.1 In water hydrogen and oxygen are present in the ratio 1: 8……….0 g hydrogen will combine with ------.9 g --------Weight of hydrogen = 11.= 8.1 g of hydrogen combine with 88.47 1 g of oxygen will combine with -------23. 1. Hydrogen sulphide contains 91.8 = 1. (1) Case 2 Similarly in hydrogen sulphide Weight of hydrogen sulphide = 100..9 g oxygen.53 g of oxygen combines with 76. A metal forms three oxides containing respectively 76. i. 1g).53 = 2.1% of sulphur.42 g ---------31.53 g ----------23. 11.42 1 g of oxygen will combine with -------31.2 : 1 The proportion by weight of copper is indicated by a simple ratio.42% and 52.0g Weight of sulphur = 91. these data are in accordance with the law of multiple proportions.47 g metal 76..47 g ----------Weight of oxygen = 23. 89 (ii) In water.6% 88.8% of oxygen and 11.11% hydrogen.= 10.---------Weight of hydrogen = 8. say 1 g of hydrogen.8% - Hydrogen 11.. 8.= 2 Mass of oxygen 8 (c) Calculation of the ratio of masses of Sulphur and oxygen when they combine to form Sulphur dioxide. hydrogen and sulphur are present in the ratio 1: 10. 11.6% of oxygen.e. 3.9% First the ratio in the weight of phosphorus and hydrogen which combine with a fixed weight of oxygen is calculated.11 g Sulphur.11 = 88.g = 15. P2O3 H2O PH3 Phosphorus 56.1 -----.8 g of hydrogen The ratio of the weights of phosphorus and hydrogen combining with 1 g of oxygen in P2O3 and H2O is 56. So.11 1 g hydrogen combines with ------. Show that the results are in agreement with the law of reciprocal proportions.g = 8 g of oxygen 11. Hydrogen sulphide contains 94. (a) Calculation of masses of Sulphur and oxygen that combine with certain fixed mass.1% Oxygen 43.9 g of hydrogen combines with 91. Hence.11 g hydrogen combines with 100 – 11.= 1 Mass of oxygen 50 The ratio (i) is double of (ii). 2:1.4% of phosphorus and 43. Water contains 88.4 11.2…. i. Show how these results illustrate the Law of Reciprocal Proportion. 2.9% of hydrogen.2 .11% Sulphur. Phosphorus trioxide contains 56.4 / 43. Mass of Sulphur 50 ------------------= ------. So.89 g oxygen.11 = 5.98 ------------------= ------.89 1 g hydrogen combines with ------.4 g of phosphorus ∴1 g of oxygen combines with 56.6 g of oxygen combines with 56.1 g of sulphur.9 In hydrogen sulphide. 100 – 94. This illustrates the law of reciprocal proportions. which is a simple ratio.1% of phosphorus and 8.2 g of sulphur.9g ----------8.98 g of Sulphur 5. it can be shown that sulphur and oxygen must be present in the ratio 10. Sulphur dioxide contains 50% oxygen. 94. (i) In H2S. the law of reciprocal proportions is verified. H H2S H2O S SO2 O Solution.2% of hydrogen.6 g of phosphorus ∴88.2 / 88.89 g hydrogen combines with 94. Water contains 11. ∴45.11 (b) Calculation of ratio of the masses of Sulphur (in H2S) and oxygen (in H2O) Mass of Sulphur 15.2 g of hydrogen ∴1 g of oxygen combines with 11.78 or 1:1.2% 8. 1 g of hydrogen will combine with 91. 88. From (1) & (2) .4% 91. (2) The ratio of sulphur to oxygen is 1: 1 in sulphur dioxide.8 g of oxygen combines with 11.2: 8 or 1: 0. Phosphine contains 91. 6 88.27 g ----------72.14 g. 72. 25 / 100 = 0. Case 3 Weight of sulphurdioxide Weight of Sulphur = = 100 g 67 g .89% of oxygen. Carbon dioxide contains 27.11 / 88.14% of oxygen. Water contains 11. Weight of Oxygen 57.86% - Weight of Hydrogen 25% 11.250 = 1:2 Hence the law of reciprocal proportions is obeyed.86% of carbon and 57.14 Weight of oxygen combining with 75 g of carbon = ------------42. 15.86 g of carbon in carbon monoxide 57.89% ….2 5. carbon disulphide contains 15.2 43.27 g of carbon combines with 72.9 = 10.2.27% carbon.= 1.27 Ratio of carbon and oxygen in carbon dioxide = 1:2.11% The ratio by weight in which hydrogen and oxygen combine among themselves = 11. according to the law of reciprocal proportions. Case 1 Weight of carbon dioxide Weight of carbon = = Weight of oxygen = 100. 4.. Show that these data are in accordance with the law of reciprocal proportions.125 : 0.1 = …. which combine with carbon.= ---------.8 And the ratio of weights of phosphorus and hydrogen in PH3 is 91. Weight of oxygen combining with 42.21 g ----------∴15./ --------.12 = 10.29 / 0.79 g ----------Weight of Sulphur = 84.86 = 100 g Weight of hydrogen combining with 75 g of carbon = 25. Methane contains 75% of carbon and 25% of hydrogen.1251 Let the fixed weight of carbon be 75 g.79% carbon and Sulphur dioxide contains 67% Sulphur.2: 10.00 g 15.21 1 g of carbon combines with ---------= 5.79 ∴Ratio of carbon and Sulphur in carbon dioxide = 1: 5.79 g of carbon combines with 84.0 g ∴Ratio of weights of hydrogen and oxygen. 27.11% of hydrogen and 88.73 ∴1g of carbon combines with ---------= 2.21 g of Sulphur 84.2 = 1:1.3 g of Sulphur.00 g 27.14% 88.73 g ----------- 27.89 = 0.66 g of oxygen.250 The ratio between the two values (1) & (2) = 0.6 Case 2 Weight of carbon disulphide Weight of carbon = = 100. What law does it illustrate? Compound Methane Carbon monoxide Water Weight of Carbon 75% 42..1 /8. they must combine in the ratio 5.6 (or) 2:1.3 If Sulphur and oxygen were to combine to sulphur dioxide. Thus the two ratios are related as 10. Carbon monoxide contains 42. 75 x 57.3: 2.73 g of oxygen. One gram of hydrogen combines with 15.92 (or) 7:2.5:1 (or) 7:2.6 g ---------76. The ratio of iodine and chlorine in iodine chloride 78.4 g ---------76.2: 0. 6.------Weight of oxygen = 33 g ------In the case of SO2 67 g of Sulphur combines with 33g of oxygen. Case 3 Weight of iodine chloride Weight of iodine = = Weight of chlorine = 100. 7.2:21.8 g --------- ….0 g 78.2 According to the law of reciprocal proportions.4 / 23.2 g --------21.2% iodine. if iodine and chlorine were to combine. one gram of Sulphur combines with 0.88 g of Sulphur. Potassium chloride contains 52% potassium. ∴ The ratio Sulphur to oxygen is 67:33 (or) 2.998 g of oxygen. .2 g of iodine .2 g iodine combines with 21. H2 S O2 H2S H2O SO2 In H2S Weight of H2 = 1 g Weight of S = 15 g In H2O Weight of H2 1g 1g - Weight of O2 7.6 g of potassium combines with 1 g of potassium combines with = = 100 g 52 g ------48 g ------48 g of chlorine 48 / 52 = 0.92 of oxygen.92 g of chlorine.998 g Weight of S 15 g 1g . Show that these data illustrate the law of reciprocal proportions. potassium iodide contains 23.8 (or) 3. Hence.6% potassium and iodine chloride contains 78.0 g 23.8 g chlorine. 76.1 100. One gram of hydrogen combines with 7. these data are in accordance with law of reciprocal proportions.6 = 3.92 g 0.. the results prove the law of reciprocal proportions. Show that these illustrate law of reciprocal proportions. they will combine in the ratio 3.3 78.1:1 Hence.4 g iodine. Case 1 Weight of potassium chloride Weight of potassium = = Weight of chlorine = 52 g of potassium combines with 1 g of potassium combine with = = Case 2 Weight of potassium iodide Weight of potassium = = Weight of iodine = 23.. 2:1 …. Water and sulphur dioxide contains 88. Let the weight of hydrogen be fixed as one gram.1 Weight of S = 1 g Weight of O2 = 0.1 g of metal was obtained.0g Weight of sulphur = 91. 8.92 g ∴The ratio between S in H2S and O2 in water is 15:7.. 15.5 g of another oxide of the same metal was heated and 103.1 In water hydrogen and oxygen are present in the ratio 1: 8……….0 g of oxygen.5 g Weight of the metal formed = 103.Weight of H2 = 1 g Weight of O2 = 7.9 g of metal combines with 55.1 g metal combines with 2..6 1 g of metal = ---------.1 g --------11. Weight of the oxide taken = 119.1 -----.15014 oxygen 103.98 i. 88. 11.075 2:1 9.5 g oxide of a metal was heated so that O2 was liberated and 32..9% and 50% oxygen respectively.075 g In the second experiment.2 In SO2 The two ratios (1) and (2) related as 2 / 1: 1 / 1 or 2:1 ∴The law of reciprocal proportions holds good.1 g of hydrogen combine with 88. that combine with the fixed weight of the metal viz 1 g are in the ratio 0. Show that the data explain the law of multiple proportions. 1. Illustrate the law of reciprocal proportions from these data? Case 1 Weight of water = 100g Weight of oxygen = 88.1 = = = 34.x 1 = 0. 1:1 ….9 Hence. In an experiment 34.4 g = 0. Solution: In the first experiment Weight of the metal oxide Weight of the metal Weight of oxygen liberated 32.15014 : 0. 1 g of hydrogen will combine with 91.= 8.2 g of sulphur.5 g 32. .6 g 103.9 g --------Weight of hydrogen = 11.0 g hydrogen will combine with ------.998 i.e. 1 g of the metal combines with 2.1% of sulphur..9 g oxygen.1g ---------Weight of hydrogen = 8. In another experiment 119. Hydrogen sulphide contains 91.9 g Weight of oxygen liberated = 15. Calculate the mass of O2 liberated in each experiment.998 g ∴The ratio between S and O2 in SO2 is 1:0. (1) Case 2 Similarly in hydrogen sulphide Weight of hydrogen sulphide = 100.4 / 32.4 g oxygen.9 Therefore different weights of oxygen.9 g of hydrogen combines with 91.9 g metal was obtained and O2 was liberated.= 10.e.1 g 2.6 g oxygen.9g ----------8.1 g of sulphur. 2: 8 or 1: 0. it can be shown that sulphur and oxygen must be present in the ratio 10. hydrogen and sulphur are present in the ratio 1: 10.2…. (2) The ratio of sulphur to oxygen is 1: 1 in sulphur dioxide. .78 or 1:1. Hence.9 In hydrogen sulphide. From (1) & (2) . the law of reciprocal proportions is verified.8.